Source Material

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Valley. New York: Architectural Book Pub. Co., 1942. Groth, Michael E. “The African American Struggle Against Slavery in the Mid-Hudson Valley,
1785-1827.” Hudson Valley Regional Review 11.1 (1994): 63–79. Hodges, Graham Russell. Root & Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey,
1613-1863. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999. Horton, James Oliver. Free People of Color: Inside the African American Community.
Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1993. Kelly, Nancy V. “Rhinebeck: Transition in 1799,” Hudson River Valley Review 6.2 (1989):
70-99. Longworth, David, and Abraham Shoemaker. “Longworth’s American Almanack, New-York Register, and City
Directory for the Twenty-Fifth Year of American Independence” 1800. Longworth, David, and Abraham Shoemaker. “Longworth’s American Almanack, New-York Register, and City Directory for the Thirtieth Year of American Independence” 1805. Longworth, David, and Abraham Shoemaker. “Longworth’s American Almanack, New-York Register, and City Directory for the Thirty-Fifth Year of American Independence” 1810. Malcolm, Joyce Lee. Peter’s War: A New England Slave Boy and the American Revolution. New
Haven: Yale University Press, 2009. McManus, Edgar J. A History of Negro Slavery in New York. Syracuse, N.Y: Syracuse University Press,
1966. Melish, Joanne Pope. Disowning Slavery: Gradual Emancipation and “Race” in New England, 1780-1860.
Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998. Minardi, Margot. Making Slavery History: Abolitionism and the Politics of Memory in
Massachusetts. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. Platt, Edmund. The Eagle’s History of Poughkeepsie: From the Earliest Settlements, 1683 to 1905.
Poughkeepsie [N.Y.]: Platt & Platt, 1905. Prude, Jonathan. “To Look Upon the ‘Lower Sort’: Runaway Ads and the Appearance of Unfree Laborers
in America, 1750-1800.” Journal of American History 78, no. 1 (June 1991): 124–159. Reynolds, Helen Wilkinson. Dutchess County Doorways, and Other Examples of Period-Work in Wood,
1730-1830, with Accounts of Houses, Places and People,
. New York: W.F. Payson, 1931. White, Shane. Somewhat More Independent: The End of Slavery in New York City, 1770-1810. Athens:
University of Georgia Press, 1991. Williams-Myers, Albert James. Long Hammering: Essays on the Forging of an African American Presence in the Hudson River Valley to the Early Twentieth Century. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1994.
Zilversmit, Arthur. The First Emancipation: The Abolition of Slavery in the North. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967.

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